Uri Avnery | 12.09.2004 11:50
Two shocking manifestos were published this week. Both call for
One of them declares that dismantling the settlements in the Gaza
Strip is a "crime against humanity". It does not mention that they were
set up on the land reserves of a million Palestinians crowded in the tiny
strip, and rob them of their scarce water. Their removal, it says, is an
"expression of tyranny, evil and arbitrariness". Officers and soldiers
are called upon not to take part in this "ethnic cleansing".
This manifesto is signed by the father and brother of Binyamin
Netanyahu, as well as Meir Har-Zion, the favorite pupil of Ariel Sharon,
who became famous in the 1950s for slitting the throats of several
innocent Beduins with his own hands in revenge for the killing of his
sister. Two former Directors General of the Prime Minister's office also
signed. Most of the signatories are not religious.
The second manifesto declares that the Halakha (Jewish religious
law) commands the killing of innocent Palestinian civilians if this helps
to save Jews. It is signed by the heads of the "Arrangement Yeshivot",
the West Bank settlement rabbis and other religious leaders. They were
later joined by one of the two Chief Rabbis (the Sephardic one).
I was not unduly upset by the first manifesto. People of this kind
can be found all over the world. In other countries they are called
fascists (but, because of the Holocaust, we do not like to use this term
in our country). What unites them is a primitive, atavistic morality that
says that "we" are a superior race, God's chosen people, a master race
etc., while "they" are inferior races, untermenschen. We may do to them
whatever we please, with a clear conscience; they are not allowed to do
to us anything at all. (In the manifesto, the settlers are requested not
to bodily harm "their own people" - leaving them free to harm all others.)
In the course of the 20th century, such people have wrought
destruction on many nations, including their own. But healthy nations
overcame them in the end. I hope that we shall manage to do the same.
The second manifesto is far more dangerous. A religious doctrine
that calls for the killing of civilians in the name of God is very
serious. Such a decree signed by the rabbis of the "Arrangement Yeshivot"
is tenfold worse.
In order to understand this, one has to know that these Yeshivot are
in fact military units. They constitute a unique phenomenon in the
Israeli army: whole units formed on an ideological-political basis,
obeying their own leaders.
When David Ben-Gurion created the Israeli army (officially called
the Israel Defense Forces) in the middle of the 1948 war, he was
determined to eliminate all its political groupings. So he disbanded the
Palmakh, the legendary elite force which was based on the kibbutzim and
tended to the left.
The present set-up was created, officially, in order to enable
students of Yeshivot (Jewish religious seminaries) to serve in the army
without interrupting their studies. In practice, they constitute a
militia of the extreme-right wing, especially the settlers. While serving
in the army, the Yeshiva students are nominally under the army chain of
command, but in practice they are also subject to their rabbis, whose
position is reminiscent of the political commissars of the Red Army.
If the orders of the officers and the directives of the rabbis ever
conflict, the great majority of the soldier-students will undoubtedly
obey the rabbis. And in any case, a great number of the officers
themselves now wear kippas, attesting to their belonging to the religious
The chiefs of the religious-nationalistic wing, and especially the
settlers, have for years now been engaged in a systematic effort to
capture the army from the inside. In the first decades of the IDF,
kibbutz members had a decisive influence on the army command, but
nowadays the settlers and other religious-nationalist people are taking
over. They fill the lower and middle ranks of the officer corps. This
development, together with the deepening occupation, has completely
changed the face of the IDF. It's a different army now.
The manifesto of the Yeshivot chiefs, calling for the killing of
Palestinian civilians, exposes this situation. Since not one single head
of an Arrangement Yeshiva has spoken out against it, we have to assume
that they are unanimous on this.
On the face of it, it is just an expert opinion. With the hypocrisy
typical for the chiefs of this camp, they say that this is not, God
forbid, an operational directive, but only an innocent effort of the
rabbis to explain to the leaders of the nation what the Halakha says
about this subject.
That is, of course, a tongue-in-cheek explanation. The Arrangement
Yeshivot soldiers are daily engaged in situations where they have to
decide whether to shoot civilians or not. It is quite clear that the
"opinion" of their rabbis will determine their behavior. It is a sentence
of death for many people.
Even today, Palestinian civilians are killed every day. Only a small
fraction of the incidents are reported in the media. An old handicapped
man was recently buried under the ruins of his home by an army bulldozer
that demolished it so quickly that his family had no chance of getting
him to safety. Only yesterday a 9 year old boy was killed while sleeping
at his home by shrapnel from a missile fired by a helicopter at an
adjacent building. Almost every day, boys of all ages are killed while
throwing stones at tanks and soldiers (whose bullet-proof vests and
helmets mean they are in no danger).
It is impossible to know how many, if any, of these civilians - men,
women, old people and children - are killed by Arrangement Yeshivot
soldiers, or soldiers commanded by kippa-wearing officers. Nobody can be
accused without incriminating evidence. But it is clear that the
interpretation of the halakha by the rabbis has now put a kosher-stamp on
such acts. It puts an end to any pretence of the "pure arms" myth. It
negates not only the prohibition of murder, but also the shame for such
The only religious voice raised against this appalling document was
that of a small and courageous group called "Rabbis for Human Rights",
which opposes the dirty messianic current that has submerged almost the
whole religious camp in Israel. Their statement discloses that the
Yeshiva heads have intentionally falsified the Talmud passages "quoted"
by them. The actual text forbids a Jew to kill innocents even to save his
own life. After all, God created all human beings "in his own image"
(Genesis 1, 27)
Unfortunately, this statement will have no impact whatsoever on the
IDF's religious militias, and even less on the settlers, who now set the
tone in the army.
Many of the most heinous crimes in human history were committed in
the name of religion. The Book of Joshua says that God commanded the
Children of Israel to commit a general ethnic cleansing in the land of
Canaan. The crusaders carried out horrible massacres in this country (and
against the Jews on the way here) while shouting "Deus le volt!" (God
wills it). Three years ago today, Osama Bin-Laden sent his people to kill
thousands in the New York Twin Towers in the name of Allah.
May God protect us from those who would speak in His name.