Skip to content or view screen version

Purveyors of fine technologies of political control

george w | 27.06.2001 13:47

some info on the riot control crowd


   Someone suggested targetting the
manufacturers of a particular riot control device. I thought why not target
a whole bunch of them. Here they are. There are no guarantees as to accuracy
of info, but it should all be right. As Sun Tzu says the best way to win
a battle is to avoid it. Try and take out the technologies of political
control before they come into play.
The following organizations have been identified
in the European Parliament reports on Prison technologies and Crowd Control
Technologies (also known as Technologies of Political Control)






Web Address

Contact information

Plastic Bullet

Royal Ordnance


"Cross Cartridge"

Heckler and Koch


1. The Heckler and Koch riot gun has a fixed
sight front and rear for quick shooting at 25 to 50m range, plus folding
sights for firing at ranges of 20, 50 and 75m 165 . It is debatable wether
in the confusion of a riot these interchangeable sights would be correctly
P.O. Box 1329
D-78722 Oberndorf
Phone- +49 7423/79-0 
Fax- +49 7423/79-24 97

Flash Ball

Verney Carron


1. In 1990 Verney-Carron astonished the public
and the professionals when bringing out the famous
Flash-Ball. The principle of a flexible rubber
ball with stopping power rivaling that of a 38 special made it possible
to counter an aggressor without systematically endangering his life. 
2. C.S. powder tear ball.
 This fragile balls contains 23 g or 33
cm3 of 90% concentration CS powder. On impact it splits and releases its
large quantity of CS. Effective up to 50 meters approximately depending
upon the angle of fire and the resistance of the target. When used against
an individual the impact is the same as that of the soft rubber ball. At
the right firing angle, it can penetrate a window, the internal door of
an apartment or the side window of a car, releasing CS powder as it passes
through so filling the premises or the vehicle.

54, Boulevard Thiers
BP 72 W
42002 St-Etienne Cedex 1
Phone- +33 (0) 477 79 15 00
Fax- +33 (0) 477 79 07 02

Jelly Baton

Crown Aircartridge


Flexible Baton

MK Ballistic Systems 


1. Partial List of Agencies using the Flexible
US Air Force
US Army
US Federal Bureau of Prisons
US Marshal Service
Alaska Dept Fish and Game
Arizona Dept Public Safety
Fresno, CA Sheriff
Las Vegas, NV Police
Los Angeles Sheriff/Police
Louisville, KY Police
Oakland, CA Police
Phoeniz, AZ Police
Rhode Island State Police
San Diego, CA Police
San Jose, CA Police/ Sheriff
Tucson, AZ Police

MK Ballistic Systems
P.O. Box 1097
Hollister, California USA 
Phone- 800.345.1504

"Cease and Desist"

Milstor Corporation


Rubber Baton Slug



1. Fiocchi products include standard full metal
jacket training ammunition; jacketed hollowpoint duty ammunition; shotgun
birdshot, buckshot, and slugs; special application less-lethal and breaching
munitions; frangible and non-toxic pistol ammunition and 5.56 rifle.

Fiocchi USA
6930 N. Fremont Road
Ozark, Missouri
Phone- (417) 725-4118
Fax- (417) 725-1039

Slingshot Bullet Machine

TFM Pty.

South Africa


MR 35 Punch

Manurhin Defense


1. Schyma, C., Schyma, P. (1997) Possibilities
for injuries caused by rubber bullets from the self defense weapon MR 35
Punch . Arch. Krimipol. Sep- Oct.
200( 3- 4). 87- 94.  The propellant used
in the French MR 35 Punch, manufactured by Manurhin causes important
variations in the projectiles velocity from 120 to
140m/ s. The resulting energies were about 150
to 200 Joules. The report then discusses the wound ballistics and concludes
that they contradict the non- lethal
character of the MR 35.
2. Accuracy
is a problem with this gun. It is acceptably accurate at 7 metres but by
18-20 metres, the weapon suffers greatly......The MR-35 may have
limited use in home defense......However in dealing with violent crowds
or hostile individuals, it is unlikely that the MR-35 has sufficient impact
to stop a determined, aggressive assailant......While probably fine for
so-called "home defense", I doubt if its flimsy construction would stand
up to protracted duty use/training. (Ellarby, 1995, 5)
(does not appear to work)


Spherical Ball 55mm

Nobel Securite (formerly)SNPE


1. On 10 June 1999, Amnesty International researchers
witnessed around 2,000 peaceful protestors, led by human rights and church
groups, demonstrate for peaceful democratic change in Kenya. The police
responded by firing tear gas into the crowd and the church grounds where
some of the protestors had retreated to.409 Over 100 canisters were fired
in one hour. The police later moved in with water-cannon which fired a
mixture of water and tear gas, reportedly an irritant and a dye. From the
witness testimony and the physical remains of canisters, Amnesty International
was able to identify that the manufacturer of the tear gas was a French-based
company, Nobel Securite (formerly SNPE).

Phone-33 2 
Fax- 33 2
Fernand KARLESKIND-  mailto:
Guy CHAUSSY-  mailto:

Kraken 59mm

Poliscke Strojimy


Armament Systems and Procedures, Inc

(can only find Australian site)

ASP Australia Pty Ltd
PO Box 3322
Black Rock
VIC 3193
Phone- 03 9532 0238
Fax- 03 9532 1236

Civil Defence Supply Ltd


Civil Defence Supply
Hunt House
The Green
Lincoln LN5 0NJ
Phone- + 44 (0)1400 273850 /1 /2
Fax- + 44 (0)1400 273854

ICL Technical Plastics


1. Recently
the Managing Director of ICL Technical Plastics pleaded guilty to possessing
these electronic weapons (stun belts), and of having supplied them to China
and countries in Africa and the Middle East. He was fined £5,000.

No apparent web site, information garnered from
this site:

G20 7NF
Phone- +44 (0) 141 332 1331
Fax- +44 (0) 141 332 3129

Le Protecteur


Dipl Ing. Walfass




Bonowi Gesellschaft für Sicherheit mbH
Oberer Dorfgraben 15c
55130 Mainz 
Phone- 06131 - 86 388
Fax- 06131 - 881 992



1. Micro-pulverised versions of irritants such
as CS1 and CS2 are available for more effective dispersal via blast grenades
such as the ISPRA 404D.
2. Full list of CS/CN products are offered, including
the unique Model 5 Projectojet, which is able to launch a
CS/CN mist at a specific target.
3. Manufacturer of high-temperature glasses including
IR lenses, domes and windows, optical fiber systems and sensors, and fiber
 optic security systems.

No apparent web site, information garnered from
this site:

Israel Product Research Co. Ltd. (ISPRA)
 Member of the ISPRA Ltd. Group
 Optical Glass Div.
 Galgal Haplada St., Ind. Zone
 Box 3061
Phone- 972 9 9555464
Fax- 972 9 9559146



1. INI (National Institute for Industry) has
a 51% majority, the
other 49% is held by privately owned defence
2. Regional Office DEFEX SA (Dubai Branch), PO
Box 9368, Dubai, UAE. Tel 971 4 31391. Fax 971 4 314712. Telex 46327 DEFEX

General Peron 38, 
9TH Floor 
Madrid 28020 
Phone-34-1 555 7861
Fax- 34-1 556 86 10
Telex- 23616 DEFEX E

SAE Alsetex


1. CHAIRMAN and PRESIDENT : Mr Jean Louis Pomarede
2. Non
lethal weapon system Cougar
lethal weapon system Chouka
Riot control grenades
Special effects grenades
CS and spray unit
3. SAE Alsetex's CS sprays for example, use a
5% solution of CS in the solvent MIBK (methyl iso-butyl ketone).
4. The Home Office has asked SAE Alsetex, which
manufactures the spray, about their alleged failure to ensure product quality
control in terms of the higher than stipulated concentrations. According
to the note of February 1997, the company simply said that they had not
been measuring the concentrations of CS in their canisters up to that point.

Usine de Malpaire - BP 5
72304 Précigné
Phone- +33-(0)2 43 92 81 00
Fax- +33-(0)2 43 95 41 13
*GENERAL DIRECTOR : Mr Daniel Milhiet - 
* GENERAL SECRETARY : Mr Alain Chameyrat - 
* MARKETING MANAGER : Mr Xavier Fernier - 
* SITE MANAGER : Mr Alain Rochelet - 
* ASSISTANT SITE MANAGER : Mr Jean-Marc Pelletier

Pipenbrock Pyrotechnic


Simad Stacchini


GKN Defence


1. Both German and UK water cannon were identified
as being deployed on the streets of Bandung in July 1996. The German water
cannon were identified as Mercedes Benz vehicles but is unknown who actually
constructed and supplied the vehicles. The UK water cannons were manufactured
by Glover Webb (a subsidiary of GKN Defence) and supplied by Procurement
Services International. Having permitted the export of 3 Tactica water
cannon in 1994 and another 6 in 1995, the United Kingdom agreed an export
licence in December 1996 for a further 7 water cannon and 303 Internal
Security vehicles in complete disregard of numerous reports of the use
of such vehicles in undermining human rights. 

7 Cleveland Row
London SW1A 1DB
Phone- +44 (0) 207 930 2424
Fax- +44 (0) 207 930 3255

Mercedes Benz


CSI Princhim


1. Maker of chemical irritants





Beit Alfa


Custom Armoring Corp


Blinding Grenade



Flash- Stun and Distraction Grenades

Nico Pyrotechnik


Hanns-Jürgen Diedrichs GmbH & Co. KG 
Bei der Feuerwerkerei 4 
22946 Trittau 
Phone- +49 4154 805 - 0
Fax- +49 4154 24 51 
7422 Hallcrest Drive
Suite 600 
McLean Va. 22102 
U S A 
Phone- +1 703 748 0674 
Fax- +1 703 748 0817 



1. Maker of chemical irritant grenades
2. Li De President of NORINCO
3. Approved by the state Council of people's Republic
of China, China North industries Corporation (NORINCO) was established
in 1980. NORINCO is a group corporation that combines technology, manufacture
and trade businesses together, mainly dealing with import and export of
commodities and technologies, entrepot trade, barter trade, domestic trade,
introduction of equipment, turn-key projects, labor cooperation, processing
according to supplied samples or with supplied materials or assembling
supplied parts and compensation trade as well as industrial investment.
The main products of NORINCO include: vehicles and mechanical products,
optical-electronic products, chemical products, explosives and blasting
materials, civil firearms and ammunition, light industrial products, special
products, fire-fighting equipment, building materials, mental and non-mental
materials and their finished products, etc.


Haley & Weller


1. Maker of kinetic impact weapons

Defense Technology Corp


IDC Chemie


1. Maker of PAVA (synthetic OC irritant)
2. US Army concluded in a 1993 Aberdeen Proving
Ground study that pepper spray could cause "Mutagenic effects, carcinogenic
effects, sensitization, cardiovascular and pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity,
as well as possible human fatalities .There is a risk in using this product
on a large and varied population" (Salem, 1993) 

IDC Chemie Handels GmbH 
Rheinstraße 7
D–88046 Friedrichshafen 
Phone- (0) 75 41 / 5 65 50
Fax- (0) 75 41 / 60 42 29

Falken SA


1. Maker of tear gas aerosols

TG GUARD ® System

Mace Security International


1. Made from a
network of jets spread around the prison premises
(comparable to the automatic sprinkler systems
installed in the ceilings in case of fires),
and controlled electronically from a console located in a
control room
2. Automatically order the dispersion of an incapacitating
agent (OC or teargas) in the desired location. A coloured additive can
ultimately be mixed with the chemical agent in order to mark the individuals
causing the disturbance for later identification.
3. Special barricade penetration devices such
as Mace Internationals Ferret, have been designed to pierce doors, cars,
plate glass windows etc, from a range of 100 metres.

160 Benmont Avenue 
P.O. Box 679
Bennington, VT.
Phone- (802) 447-1503 
Fax- (802) 442-3823
email- wide variety at this site:


Zarc International


1. Maker of OC sprays
2. Hours of Operation: Monday to Friday 9 a.m.
to 5 p.m. 
Eastern Standard Time 
3.  State of Corporation Maryland, USA 
4. US Federal ID No. (EIN): 06-1238578 
5. DUNS No.: 62-199-3245 
6. SIC Code: 3999 
7. CAGE Code: OXP11

Zarc International, Inc. 
P.O. BOX 5800 
Phone- (301) 564-3737
Fax- (301) 897-5220

Bsafe Industries




Hobbs Lane 
East Sussex 
TN31 6TS 
Phone- +44 (0) 1797 260553 
Fax- +44 (0) 1797 260374 



Eclats Antivol


1. Maker of electro-shock weapons



1. Nitspy belongs to a well-known security group,
who is being in the security field for more than 30 years. Its reputation
and contacts opened a deep forest of customers who required special equipment
and technology to prevent their lives, and/or piece of mind.

Comte Borrell, 115
08015 Barcelona
Phone- 93 423 97 88
Fax- 93 301 36 63

Teh Huang Plastic Co Ltd


RACC (Remote Activated Custody Control)

Nova Products


1. Maker of electro-shock riot shields
2. The
Texas Department of Criminal Justice, which had used the shields to subdue
prisoners since September 1995, immediately suspended their use. Meanwhile,
John McDermit, president of Nova Products, Inc., the maker of the shield,
denied that it had killed Landis. "We're very sorry this happened," McDermit
said. "But there certainly was no connection between his training and his
death. Cusac, Anne- Marie. (1996) "Stunning Technology " . The Progressive.
July. (does not seem to work)

4861 Old Sparta Rd
Cookeville, TN
Phone- (615) 526-4460
Fax- (615) 526-3535



1. Maker of electro-shock stun weapons

1785 Pomona Road, #C
Corona, CA 92880
Phone- (909) 340-0896
Fax- (909) 340-0899

Laser Dissuader ™

Science and Engineering
Associates, Inc. (SEA)


“Laser Dissuader ™” is a product based on the technology of SABER 203,
a non-lethal
laser developed by SEA for the U.S. Air Force and successfully tested by
the U.S. Marines
the withdrawal of UN forces from Somalia.
2. Because of their resemblance to an ordinary
flashlight, the offender will not perceive these devices
as an immediate threat which minimises the risks
of escalation in the confrontation and increases the
effect of surprise and confusion when the offender
is affected by the laser beam 108 .
3. Developed with the support of Phillips Laboratory
of the U.S. Air Force.

SEA Plaza
6100 Uptown Boulevard NE,
Suite 700
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110
Phone- 505-884-2300 
Fax- 505-346-0642 

Laser Dazzler ™

LE Systems, Inc.


It uses a green laser diode (wavelength of 532 nanometres) to produce random
lights in order to disorient an individual.
2. Because of their resemblance to an ordinary
flashlight, the offender will not perceive these devices
as an immediate threat which minimises the risks
of escalation in the confrontation and increases the
effect of surprise and confusion when the offender
is affected by the laser beam 108 .
3. Developed
with funding from the NIJ and DARPA

National Law
Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center

Trent DePersia
National Institute of Justice
P.O. Box 1160
Rockville, MD 20849-1160
Phone- (202)305-4686

REACT belt (Remote Electronically Activated Control

STUN TECH Inc., of Cleveland (Ohio).


1. Using a remote control
with a range of around 90 metres, the guard can
inflict electric shocks of 50,000 volts on the
offender for 8 seconds. When the device is activated,
it is no longer possible to interrupt it 
2. Judge's
order to shock defendant stuns witnesses
3. Weapons
Of Torture
4. Denis Kaufman, President


TASER International Inc


1. The AIR TASER uses a cartridge of compressed
air to propel two hooked electrodes which fix
themselves to the clothes of the individual at
a range of around 5 metres. The victim’s nervous
system closes the circuit between the two electrodes
which remain connected to the gun by two fine
electrical wires.
2. The system remains effective even through several
layers of clothing and causes loss of all muscular
control in the victim.

TASER International, Inc.
7860 E. McClain Drive, Suite 2
Scottsdale, Arizona 85260
Phone- (800) 978-2737 
(480) 991-0797
Fax- (480) 991-0791

Sticky Shocker



1. The “Sticky Shocker ®” launches a wireless
projectile from a distance of
10 metres, which fixes itself to the target by
means of glue or small claws. The projectile contains a
small battery and the electronics necessary to
inflict impulses of 50 kV, using the same principle as
the TASER, even through several layers of clothing.
2. Developed with funding from the NIJ and DARPA

Jaycor Tactical Systems (JTS) 
3394 Carmel Mountain Road
San Diego, CA 92121 
Phone- 877.887.3773 
Fax- 858.720.4201

WebShot ™ NET

Foster Miller, Inc.,


1. Also "Pepper-NET" which disburses OC gas on
contact and Sting-NET which gives an electric shock on contact

350 Second Avenue
Waltham, MA 02451
Phone- (781) 684-4000
email form-



1. Recieving funding from the NIJ to develop
a projectile which can launch a capsule of OC up to 30 metres, and which
is capable of going through a window and dispersing, within the second,
a sufficient quantity of OC to saturate a volume of 10 m³.






Hypersonic Sound

American Technology Corp. of San


1. Part of a R&D collaboration with the Naval
Post Graduate
School of
Monterey in California
2. A technique for generating sounds using air
as the resonance surface instead of a loudspeaker with a membrane

Scientific Applications and Research Associates
(SARA) of California


1. The leader for the development of infrasonic
acoustic weapons
2. Developed an operational system for the U.S.
Army Armaments Research, Development and
Engineering Command

SARA Inc. 
15261 Connector Lane 
Huntington Beach, CA, USA, 92649-1117 
Phone- (714)903-1000 
Fax- (714)903-0500

National Defense Research Establishment.


1. Accoustic weapon development

“Physiological Responses to Energetic Stimuli”

Oak Ridge National
Laboratory in Tennessee


1. Currently carrying out research on the various
technologies which may produce temporary physiological symptoms (nausea,
dizziness, disorientation etc.) in the individual, in response to external
stimuli such as certain sound or light frequencies or ionising or non-ionising
electromagnetic radiance.
2. Currently studying a prototype of a thermal
gun which could produce disorientation following an increase in the body
3. Also working on projects to use certain frequencies
to provoke epilepsy attacks

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 
P.O. Box 2008 
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
(If you're sending mail by carriers other than
the U.S. Postal Service, replace the "P.O. Box 2008" with "One Bethel Valley
Road." )

Biological Process Control

US Army War College, Scientific Advisory Committee
of the
U.S. Air Force


1. “Biological Process Control” can be defined
as a process that interferes with the
biological and/or psychological process of the
human body by subjecting it to physical, chemical or electromagnetic stimuli
with the aim of inducing a determined behaviour and altering the mental
faculties or the influence of the memory.
2. In the same register, a document published
in 1996, by the Scientific Advisory Committee of the U.S. Air Force provides
for the possibility of developing “electromagnetic energy sources (…) that
can couple with the human body in a fashion that will allow one to prevent
voluntary muscular
movements, control emotions (and thus actions),
produce sleep, transmit suggestions, interfere with both short-term and
long-term memory, produce an experience set, and delete an experience set.
(…) It would also appears possible to create high fidelity speech in the
human body, raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological
direction. When a high power microwave pulse in the gigahertz range strikes
the human body, a very small temperature perturbation occurs. This is
associated with a sudden expansion of the slightly
heated tissue. This expansion is fast enough to produce an acoustic wave.
If a pulse stream is used, it should be possible to create an internal
acoustic field in the 5-15 kilohertz range, which is audible. Thus, it
may be possible to “talk” to selected adversaries in a fashion that would
be most disturbing to them ” [US Department of Commerce,1996] 

3. Non-lethal
Weapons Research Project
4. A
Report on the International Trade in Surveillance Technology and its links
to the Arms Industry.
5. AN
(from An Appraisal of Technologies of Political
A second generation of kinetic, chemical, optico-acoustic,
microwave, disabling and paralysing technologies is on the
horizon, to join the existing arsenal of weapons designed for public order
control. Much of the initial new work has been
undertaken in US nuclear laboratories such as Oak Ridge, Lawrence Livermore
and Los Alamos. Many cynics see the
work as a rice bowl initiative with scientists looking for new weapons
projects to justify their future careers as the cold war
made their old skill redundant. Already they have come up with a pandora's
box of new technologies. These include:
* Ultra-sound generators, which cause disorientation, vomiting and involuntary
defecation, disturbing the ear
system which controls balance and inducing nausea. The system which uses
two speakers can target individuals
in a crowd.
* Visual stimulus and illusion techniques such as high intensity strobes
which pulse in the critical epileptic
fit-inducing flashing frequency and holograms used to project active camouflage.
* Reduced energy kinetic weapons. Variants on the bean bag philosophy which
ostensibly will result in no
damage ( similar claims were once made about plastic bullets). (See Fig
* New disabling, calmative, sleep inducing agents mixed with DMSO which
enables the agent to quickly cross
the skin barrier and an extensive range of pain causing, paralysing and
foul-smelling area-denial chemicals.
Some of these are chemically engineered variants of the heroin molecule.
They work extremely rapidly, one
touch and disablement follows. Yet one person's tranquillization may be
another's lethal dose. (See Fig.33)
* Microwave and acoustic disabling systems. (see Fig.34)
* Human capture nets which can be laced with chemical irritant or electrified
to pack an extra disabling punch.
(See Fig 34)
* Lick 'em and stick 'em technology such as the Sandia National Laboratory's
foam gun which expands to
between 35-50 times its original volume. Its extremely sticky, gluing together
any target's feet and hands to the
pavement. (See Fig 35)
* Aqueous barrier foam which can be laced with pepper spray
* Blinding laser weapons and Isotrophic radiator shells which use superheated
gaseous plasma to produce a
dazzling burst of laser like light. (See Fig.36)
* Thermal guns which incapacitate through a wall by raising body temperature
to 107 degrees.
* Magnetosphere gun which delivers what feels like a blow to the head.
We are no longer at a theoretical stage with these weapons. US companies
are already piloting new systems, lobbying hard
and where possible, laying down potentially lucrative patents. For example,
last year New Scientist reported that the
American Technology Corporation (ATC) of Poway California has used what
it calls acoustical heterodyning technology to
target individuals in a crowd with infra-sound to pinpoint an individual
metres away. The system can also project sonic holograms which can conjure
audio messages out of thin air so just one
person hears.79 Meanwhile, Jane's reported that the US Army Research Laboratory
has produced a variable velocity rifle
for lethal or non lethal use a new twist to flexible response.80 Other
companies are promoting robots for use in riot and
prison control.
The National Institute of Justice in the US is now actively soliciting
new ideas for such weapons from corporate bodies,81
and corporate US has responded with bodies like SPIE (The International
Society For Optical Engineering), which have
enthusiastically responded with a special conference on 'Enabling Technologies
for Law Enforcement and Security' at the
Hynes Convention centre in Boston, Nov 19-21, 1996. The panel on less than
lethal technologies has experts talking on
subjects such as: The non-lethal laser baton; design of a variable velocity
gun system for law enforcement applications; sticky
shocker; definition of lethality thresholds for KE less-lethal projectiles;
violence reduction and assailant control with laser
sighted police pistols; directed energy technologies: weaponisation and
barrier applications; pepper spray projectile for
countering hostage and barricade situations; aqueous foam as a less than
lethal technology for prison applications etc. A
formal Pentagon policy on the use of non-lethal weapons was prepared last
year in response to Congressional instructions to
initiate a joint acquisitions programme. Whilst there are practical problems
regarding whether it is preferable to leave an
enemy or a citizen dead rather than permanently maimed, and whether or
not hallucinogenic or other psychotropic 'calmative'
agents fall foul of the Chemical Weapons Convention, the spending call
was for $15 million annually over the next three
years, to fund new and existing projects.82
Critics of such projects suggest that non-lethal war is a contradiction
in terms. Many of the so called non-lethal weapons are
in reality are far from non-lethal. They can and have killed, maimed, blinded
and scalped innocent bystanders. There is a real
danger that they will make conflicts more lethal by enraging crowds and
by paralysing people making them more vulnerable
to other operations by the military and security forces. In that sense
these weapons could be considered pre-lethal and
actually lead to higher casualty rates. (See above) In fact the US proponents
of these weapons are under no illusions. Their
focus is 'not to replace lethal munitions but to augment existing and future
capabilities which will provide a spectrum of force
response options.'83 The area most commentators have not addressed is the
extent that such weapons will help the military
create new roles for themselves as part of internal policing operations.
Most of the debate has been about their role in war. We know from the proceedings
of the Non Lethal Defence II
conference, (organised by The American Defence Preparedness Association
held in March last year), that the that the Joint
Program Office of Special Technology Countermeasures (JPO-STC) have developed
a multi-service co-ordination strategy
that incorporates both the HQ Allied Forces of Southern Europe and the
'Doctrine & Training HQ' of the United
Kingdom.84 Other formal liaison links between the USA non-lethal research
community and Member States are anticipated
but little public information has emerged.
The work done so far has led to dubious weapons based on dubious research,
strongly influenced by commercial rather than
humanitarian considerations. There is a pressing need for a wide ranging
debate in the European Parliament of the
humanitarian and civil liberties implications of allowing these weapons
on to European soil to become part of the technology
of political control in the EU. Much of the work that has been undertaken
in secret, but part of the bibliography of the
present report covers a representative sample of the available literature.
What is required is a much more detailed
assessment of these weapons than space  permits here and it is recommended
that a new study be commissioned to achieve this work. In themeantime,
it would be
useful to ask for the European Commission to report on existing liaison
arrangements between Member States and the US
on Non-lethal weapons and the nature and extent of any joint activities.

george w